Bibliography

Bibliography

Afghanistan WarAmerican Revolution/Colonial EraAviationBiography and MemoirsBuffalo SoldiersCivil War and ReconstructionGeneral | GermanyGreat BritainGulf WarIntegrationIraq WarKorean WarNaval HistorySpanish American WarVietnam War The War of 1812WomenWorld War IWorld War II

Afghanistan War


Afghanistan War
American Revolution/Colonial Era
  • Cody, Michael A. “Black Patriots of the Revolution.” Army, February 1998.
  • Frey, Sylvia R. Water from the Rock: Black Resistance in a Revolutionary Age. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.
  • Garrison, William Lloyd, George Henry Moore, Laura E. Wilkes, eds. The Negro Soldier: A Select Compilation. New York: Negro Universities Press, 1970.
  • Gibbs, C. R. “The First Black Army Officer (Col. Middleton, Revolutionary War).” Armed Forces Journal International, June 24, 1975.
  • Greene, Lorenzo J. “Some Observations on the Black Regiment of Rhode Island in the American Revolution.”  Journal of Negro History 37 (1952): 142-72.
  • Hartgrove, W. B. “The Negro Soldier in the American Revolution.” Journal of Negro History 1 (April 1916): 110-31.
  • Jackson, Luther Porter. “Virginia Negro Soldiers and Seamen in the American Revolution.” Journal of Negro History 27 (1942): 247-87.
  • Mann, JoAnn. “Black Americans in the War for Independence.” Soldiers, January 1975.
  • Norton, Mary Beth. “The Fate of Some Black Loyalists of the American Revolution.” Journal of Negro History 58 (October 1973): 402-26.
  • Quarles, Benjamin A. The Negro in the American Revolution. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1961.
  • Sandel, Edward, ed. Black Soldiers in the Colonial Militia: Documents from 1639 to 1780. Roseland, LA: Tabor-Lucus Publications, 1994.
  • Voelz, Peter Michael. Slave and Soldier: The Military Impact of Blacks in the Colonial Americas. New York: Garland, 1993.
  • Wright, Robert K. Jr. “Blacks in the Colonial Militia.” National Guard, February 1989.

Aviation

  • “Statue Honors Tuskegee Airmen.” Air Force Times, March 28, 1988.
  • “Tuskegee Airmen Contributed Beyond War.” Air Force Times, September 7, 1987.
  • “Tuskegee Airmen: Still Flying High.” Ebony, November 1994.
  • Adde, Nick. “Tuskegee Airmen Aimed High.” Air Force Times, February 29, 1988.
  • Betts, M. W. “The Tuskegee Airmen.” Dispatch, February 7, 1985.
  • Bragg, Janet Harmon. Soaring above Setbacks: The Autobiography of Janet Harmon Bragg, African American Aviator. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996.
  • Brock, Pope. “Chief Anderson (of the Tuskegee Airmen).” People, November 28, 1988.
  • Brown, Betty J., and Darby James R. The Tuskegee Experiment: The Tuskegee Airman Toolbook. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air Command and Staff College, 1997.
  • Callander, Bruce. “Tuskegee Few: Winning Their Wings, Repeatedly.” Air Force Times, February 28, 1983.
  • Cooper, Charlie and Ann Cooper. Tuskegee’s Heroes: Featuring the Aviation Art of Roy La Grone. Foreword by Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. Osceola, WI: Motorbooks, 1996.
  • Correrro, Jennifer. “WWII’s First Black Marines Trained at Montford (North Carolina).” Air Force Times, February 24, 1997.
  • Dalfiume, Richard M. Desegregation of the U.S. Armed Forces: Fighting on Two Fronts, 1939-1953. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969.
  • Davis, Benjamin O. Jr. Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography. New York: Plume, 1992.
  • Davis, Jerry A. “Black Wings of Tuskegee.” Alabama Heritage, Winter 1993.
  • Dryden, Charles W. A-Train: Memoirs of a Tuskegee Airman. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1997.
  • Enda, Jodi. “Open Sky: Black WWII Pilots Receive Salute for Breaking the Color Barrier.” Current News Special Edition: Equal Opportunity, June 1992.
  • Erstein, Hap. “The Eagles Who Touched the Sky.” Insight, March 4, 1991.
  • Ferguson, William C. Black Flyers in World War II. Cleveland, OH: W. C. Ferguson, 1987.
  • Fogleman, Ronald R. “Tuskegee Airmen’s Legacy of Service for Youth Today.” Defense Issues 10, no. 93 (1995): 1-4.
  • Francis, Charles E. The Tuskegee Airmen: the Men Who Changed a Nation. 3rd rev. exp. ed.  Boston: Branden Pub. Co.,1993.
  • Freydberg, Elizabeth H. Bessie Coleman, The Brownskin Lady Bird. New York: Garland Pub., 1994.
  • Gillead, Le Roy F. The Tuskegee Experiment and Tuskegee Airmen 1939-1949. San Francisco, [n.p.], 1994.
  • Gropman, Alan L. “The Air Force, 1941-1951: From Segregation to Integration.” Air Power History 40 (Summer 1993): 25-29.
  • Gropman, Alan L. “Tuskegee Airmen.” Air Force Magazine, March 1996.
  • Hardesty, Jon and Pisano Domenick. Black Wings: The American Black in Aviation. Washington, DC: National Air and Space Museum, 1984.
  • Hartzer, Ronald B. “Black Aviation Engineer Units of World War II.” Civil Engineer 5 (Winter 1998): 20-22.
  • Hastie, William Henry. On Clipped Wings: The Story of Jim Crow in the Army Air Corps. New York: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 1943.
  • Hensley, Joseph W. History of 66th AAF Flying Training Detachment, Moton Field, Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. s.l., s.d.
  • Holway, John. Red Tails, Black Wings: The Men of America’s Black Air Force. Las Cruces, NM: Yucca Tree, 1997.
  • Jakeman, Robert J. America’s Black Air Pioneers, 1900-1939. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air Command and Staff College, 1988.
  • Johnson, Hayden C. The Fighting 99th Air Squadron, 1941-1945. New York, Vantage Press: 1987.
  • Keerdoja, E. “Tuskegee Airmen Keep on Flying.” Newsweek, August 9, 1982.
  • Keogh, Rosemary. “Discrimination Didn’t Ground His Dreams of Flying.” Current News Special Edition: Equal Opportunity, February 1983.
  • Kitchens, John W. “They Also Flew: Pioneer Black Army Aviators.” U.S. Army Aviation Digest, Sept.–Oct. 1994.
  • Loving, Neal V. Loving’s Love: A Black American’s Experience in Aviation. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994.
  • McKissack, Pat and McKissack Fredrick. Red-Tail Angels: The Story of the Tuskegee Airmen of World War II. New York: Walker and Co., 1995.
  • McPeak, Merrill A. “Air Force Heritage: the Tuskegee Example.” Airman, October 1993.
  • Muradian, Vago. “Fighting the Enemy and Racism.” Air Force Times, September 11, 1995.
  • Pailthorpe, Robert. “Blue Angels Get New CO.” All Hands, February 1995.
  • Parrish, Noel Francis. “Reflections on the Tuskegee Experiment.” Interview. Aerospace Historian, September 1977.
  • Parrish, Noel Francis. The Segregation of Negroes in the Army Air Forces. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air Command and Staff College, May 1947.
  • Paszek, Lawrence J. “Separate, But Equal? The Story of the 99th Fighter Squadron.” Aerospace Historian, September 1977.
  • Powell, William J. Black Aviator: The Story of William J. Powell. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994.
  • Rich, Doris. Queen Bess: Daredevil Aviator. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993.
  • Riley, Eddie C. “Tuskegee Airmen.” Sergeants, December 1992.
  • Robinson, Kevin L. “Triple Nickel: An Airborne Legacy.” Soldiers, February 1998.
  • Rose, Robert A. “Lonely Eagles.” American Aviation Historical Society Journal 20, pt. 1 (Summer 1975): 118-27; pt. 2 (Winter 1975): 240-52.
  • Rose, Robert A. Lonely Eagles: The Story of America’s Black Air Force in World War II. Los Angeles: Tuskegee Airmen, 1980.
  • Russell, Andra M. Tuskegee Airmen: Leaders of Men. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air War College, 1996.
  • Schlitz, William P. “Blacks in U. S. Aviation: The Pioneers.” Air Force Magazine, Pt. 1, January 1983; Pt. 2, February 1983.
  • Scott, Lawrence P. and William M.Womack. Double V: The Civil Rights Struggle of the Tuskegee Airmen. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1994.
  • Warren, James C. The Freeman Field Mutiny: A Tuskegee Airmen’s Story. Vacaville, CA: Conyers, 1996.

Biography and Memoirs

  • Bird, Julie. “Making History: Brigadier General Selectee Harris and Her Climb to the Top.” Air Force Times, July 16, 1990.
  • Bolden, Charles F., Jr., Interview. Contemporary Black Biography 7 (1992): 16-18.
  • Bragg, Janet Harmon. Soaring Above Setbacks: The Autobiography of Janet Harmon Bragg, African American Aviator. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996.
  • Carter, Allene G., and Robert L. Allen. Honoring Sergeant Carter: A Family’s Journey to Uncover the Truth about an American Hero. New York: Amistad, 2004.
  • Cockfield, Jamie. “Eugene Bullard, America’s First Black Military Aviator, Flew for France During World War I.” Military History, February 1996.
  • Dabbs, Henry E. A First Edition Reference Work on Black Brass: Black Generals and Admirals in the Armed Forces of the United States. Freehold, NJ: Afro-American Heritage House, 1984.
  • Davis, Benjamin O. Jr. American: An Autobiography. New York: Plume, 1992.
  • De Young, Karen. SOLDIER: The Life of Colin Powell. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006.
  • Dryden, Charles W. A-Train: Memoirs of a Tuskegee Airman. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1997.
  • Fletcher, Marvin. America’s First Black General: Benjamin O. Davis, Sr., 1880-1970. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1989.
  • Flipper, Henry Ossian. Black Frontiersman: The Memoirs of Henry O. Flipper, First Black Graduate of West Point, ed. Theodore D. Harris. Fort Worth: Texas Christian University Press, 1997.
  • Freydberg, Elizabeth H. Bessie Coleman, The Brownskin Lady Bird. New York, Garland Pub., 1994.
  • Gatski, John. “Enlisted History: Eugene J. Bullard, the First Black Combat Pilot.” Sergeants, January-February 1988.
  • Gibson, Truman K., Jr., and Steve Huntley. Knocking Down Barriers: My Fight for Black America. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2005.
  • Hardesty, Duane E. General Roscoe Robinson, Jr.: He Overcame the Hurdle of Segregation to Become the Army’s First Black General. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Army War College, 1988.
  • Hawkins, Walter L. African American Generals and Flag Officers: Biographies of over 120 Blacks in the United States Military. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1992.
  • Heinl, Nancy G. “Col. Charles Young: Pointman.” Army, March 1977.
  • Jenson, H. Bert. “Where Dreams Became Destiny: General Benjamin O. Davis Sr.” Military Review 75 (December 1994-January/February 1995): 94-103.
  • Lee, Gregory. Air Force Leadership: General Daniel “Chappie” James, Jr. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air Command and Staff College, 1986.
  • McGuire, Phillip. He, Too, Spoke for Democracy: Judge Hastie, World War II, and the Black Soldier. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988.
  • Means, Howard B. Colin Powell: Soldier/Statesman, Statesman/Soldier. New York: Donald I. Fine, 1992.
  • Morrow, Curtis. What’s a Commie Ever Done to Black People?: A Korean War Memoir of Fighting in the U.S. Army’s Last All Negro Unit. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., Inc. 1997.
  • Murray, Chris. “A Buffalo Soldier Lays Down his Arms.” Army Times, September 20, 1993.
  • Murray, Chris. “Pioneering Four-Star Led Important Battles (Gen. Roscoe Robinson, Jr.).” Army Times, August 9, 1993.
  • Pfeffer, Paula F. A. Philip Randolph, Pioneer of the Civil Rights Movement. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990.
  • Phelps, J. Alfred. Chappie: America’s First Black Four-Star General. Novato, CA: Presidio, 1991.
  • Poole, Roy A. “Lieutenant General Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.” Flying Safety, November 1991.
  • Powell, Colin and Joseph E. Persico. My American Journey. New York: Random House, 1995.
  • Powell, William J. Black Aviator: The Story of William J. Powell. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994.
  • Rich, Doris. Queen Bess: Daredevil Aviator. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993.
  • Roth, David. Sacred Honor: A Biography of Colin Powell. San Francisco: Harper, 1993.
  • Samuelson, Hyman. Love, War, and the 96th Engineers (Colored): The World War II New Guinea Diaries of Captain Hyman Samuelson. Edited by Gwendolyn Midlo Hall. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995.
  • Shaw, Robert Gould. Blue-Eyed Child of Fortune: the Civil War Letters of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw. Edited by Russell Duncan. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992.
  • Slavin, Peter. “‘Chappie’ James: Fearless Four-Star.” Air Force Times, May 20, 1991.
  • Slavin, Peter. “Internal Fires (Story of Gen Benjamin Davis).”Air Force Times, May 20, 1991.
  • Smith, Mary H. “The Incredible Life of Monsieur Bullard.” Ebony, December 1967.
  • Staupers, Mabel K. Interview. Contemporary Black Biography 7 (1992): 253-56.
  • Taylor, John J. Does Anyone Care? Henry O. Flipper and the United States Army. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Army Command and General Staff College, 1995.
  • Tucker, Philip Thomas. “John Horse: Forgotten African-American Leader of the Second Seminole War.” Journal of Negro History 77 (Spring 1992): 74-83.

Buffalo Soldiers

  • Billington, Monroe Lee. New Mexico’s Buffalo Soldiers, 1866-1900. Niwot: University of Colorado Press, 1991.
  • Carroll, John M. The Black Military Experience in the American West. New York: Liveright, 1973.
  • Fort Myer Equal Opportunity Office. Fort Myer Buffalo Soldiers. Fort Myer, VA: Fort Myer Military Community, ca. 1993-1994.
  • Fowler, Arlen L. The Black Infantry in the West, 1869-1891. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.
  • Hargrove, Hondon B. Buffalo Soldiers in Italy: Black Americans in World War II. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1985.
  • Leckie, William H. The Buffalo Soldiers: A Narrative of the Negro Cavalry in the West. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1967.
  • McBride, James. Miracle at St. Anna: A Novel of the Buffalo Soldiers of World War II. New York: Riverhead Books, 2002.
  • Schubert, Frank N. Black Valor: Buffalo Soldiers and the Medal of Honor, 1870-1898. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, Inc., 1997.
  • Schubert, Frank N. Buffalo Soldiers, Braves, and the Brass: The Story of Fort Robinson, Nebraska. Shippensburg, PA: White Mane Pub. Co., 1993.
  • Wright, Reuben Leon. The Role of the Buffalo Soldiers during the Spanish-American War. Ft. Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, June 1992.

Civil War and Reconstruction

  • Adde, Nick. “Black Vets are Honored: March, Memorial Recognize Contributions to Civil War.” Air Force Times, October 14, 1996.
  • Akers, Frank H., Jr. “They Fought for the Union and Equality: Blacks in the Civil War.” Army, March 1975.
  • Aptheker, Herbert. “The Negro in the Union Navy.” Journal of Negro History 32 (April 1947): 169-200.
  • Beecham, R. K., and Michael E. Stevens. As If It Were Glory: Robert Beecham’s Civil War from the Iron Brigade to the Black Regiments. Madison, WI: Madison House, 1998.
  • Berlin, Ira, and Joseph P. Reidy, eds. The Black Military Experience: Freedom, a Documentary History of Emancipation 1861-1867. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
  • Black, Andrew K. “In the Service of the United States: Comparative Mortality among African-American and White Troops in the Union Army.” Journal of Negro History 72 (Summer 1994): 317-27.
  • Blackett, R J. M., ed. Thomas Morris Chester, Black Civil War Correspondent: His Dispatches from the Virginia Front. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989.
  • Brinsfield, John. “Battle of New Market Heights.” Soldiers, February 1996.
  • Brooks, Constance V. Names on Record: A Journal Featuring Virginians of African Descent. Washington, DC: C.V. Brooks, 1998.
  • Burchard, Peter. “‘We’ll Stand by the Union’: Robert Gould Shaw and the Black 54th Massachusetts Regiment.” New York: Facts on File, 1993.
  • Carle, Glenn L., and Roger J. Spiller. “The First Kansas Colored.” American Heritage 43 (February 1992): 78-91.
  • Carter, Evon Bernard. Black Men: Denial and Acceptance During the Civil War, 1861-1863. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Army Command and General Staff College, 1995.
  • Cochran, Darrell. “They Didn’t Falter (54th Massachusetts Infantry).” Soldiers, February 1992.
  • Coleman, Joseph B. Brave Black Regiment: The Information of the Fifty-Fourth Massachusetts Regiment: January 1863–June 1864. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Army Command and General Staff College, 1995.
  • Cornish, Dudley Taylor. The Sable Arm; Negro Troops in the Union Army, 1861-1865. New York: Longmans, Green, 1956.
  • Weaver, C. P., ed. Thank God My Regiment an African One: The Civil War Diary of Colonel Nathan W. Daniels. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1998.
  • Emilio, Luis F. A Brave Black Regiment: History of the Fifty-Fourth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, 1863-1865. Salem, NH: Ayer Company, 1990.
  • Fletcher, Marvin. “The Negro Volunteer in Reconstruction, 1865-1866.” Military Affairs, December 1968.
  • Gibbs, C. R. “Blacks In the Union Navy.” All Hands, December 1974.
  • Gladstone, William A. Men of Color. Gettysburg, PA: Thomas Publications, 1993.
  • Gladstone, William A. United States Colored Troops, 1863-1867. Gettysburg, PA: Thomas Publications, 1990.
  • Glatthaar, Joseph T. Forged in Battle: The Civil War Alliance—Black Soldiers and White Officers. New York: Free Press, 1990.
  • Gooding, James Henry. The Altar of Freedom: A Black Soldier’s Civil War Letters from on the Front. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1991.
  • Hansen, Joyce. Between Two Fires: Black Soldiers in the Civil War. New York: F. Watts, 1993.
  • Hargrove, Hondon B. Black Union Soldiers in the Civil War. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1988.
  • Harper, C. W. “The Black Soldier During the U. S. Civil War: From Pariah to Trusted Comrade in Arms.” Army, September 1988.
  • Higginson, Thomas Wentworth. Army Life in a Black Regiment. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1900.
  • Hollandsworth, James G. The Louisiana Native Guards: The Black Military Experience during the Civil War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1995.
  • Horton, James O. “Making Free: African Americans and the Civil War.” In The Civil War Battlefield Guide, ed. Francis H. Kennedy. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1990.
  • Jordan, Ervin L., Jr. Black Confederates and Afro-Yankees in Civil War Virginia. Charlottesville:  University Press of Virginia, 1995.
  • Kennedy, Frances H., ed. The Civil War Battlefield Guide. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990.
  • Lee, Ulysses Grant. The Employment of Negro Troops. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Military History, U.S. Army, 1966.
  • Listman, John. “Ups and Downs—Reconstruction and Beyond.” National Guard, February 1989.
  • Longacre, Edward G. “Black Troops in the Army of the James, 1863-65.” Military Affairs, February 1981.
  • Lovett, Bobby L. “The Negro’s Civil War in Tennessee, 1861-1865.” Journal of Negro History 61 (January 1976): 36–50.
  • Mays, Joe H. Black Americans and Their Contributions toward Union Victory in the American Civil War, 1861-1865. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1984.
  • McPherson, James M. The Negro’s Civil War: How American Blacks Felt and Acted During the War for the Union. New York: Ballentine Books, 1991.
  • McPherson, James M. The Negro’s Civil War: How American Negroes Felt and Acted during the War for the Union. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1982.
  • Miller, Edward A. The Black Civil War Soldiers of Illinois: The Story of the Twenty-Ninth U. S. Colored Infantry. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.
  • Quarles, Benjamin. The Negro in the Civil War. New York, Da Capo Press, [1989]. Originally published: Boston: Little Brown, 1953.
  • Quarles, Benjamine A. “The Abduction of the ‘Planter..” Civil War History 4, no.1 (March 1958): 510.
  • Redkey, Edwin S., ed. A Grand Army of Black Men: Letters from African-American Soldiers in the Union Army, 1861-1865. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
  • Redkey, Edwin S. “They Are Invincible.” Civil War Times Illustrated, April 1989. Reprint, with new introduction. Originally published: Boston: Little, Brown, 1953.
  • Schamel, Wynell Burroughs, and Jean West. “The Fight for Equal Rights: A Recruiting Poster for Black Soldiers in the Civil War.” Social Education, February 1992.
  • Shaw, Robert Gould. Blue-Eyed Child of Fortune: The Civil War Letters of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw. Edited by Russell Duncan. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992.
  • Singletary, Otis A. Negro Militia and Reconstruction. Austin: University of Texas Press, [1957].
  • Singletary, Otis A. “The Negro Militia during Radical Reconstruction.” Military Affairs, Fall 1955.
  • Sterling, Dorothy. Captain of the Planter: The Story of Robert Smalls. New York: Doubleday, 1958.
  • Trudeau, Noah Andre. Like Men of War: Black Troops in the Civil War, 1862-1865. Boston: Little, Brown, 1998.
  • Valuska, David L. The African American in the Union Navy, 1861-1865. New York: Garland Publishers, 1993.
  • Westwood, Howard C. Black Troops, White Commanders, and Freedmen during the Civil War. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1992.
  • Williams, George Washington. A History of the Negro Troops in the War of the Rebellion, 1861-1865: Preceded by a Review of the Military Services of Negroes in Ancient and Modern Times. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1888.
  • Williams, Rudi. “Battle of Crater: Blunder Underground.” Dispatch, February 14, 1992.

General

  • Black Americans in Defense of Our Nation. Washington, DC, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Equal Opportunity and Safety Policy, Dept. of Defense. U. S. G.P.O., 1985.
  • “Networking Boosts Black Officer Ranks; Pace Still Slow.” Navy Times, August 1, 1988.
  • Allen, Robert L. The Port Chicago Mutiny. New York: Warner, 1989.
  • Armstead, Ronald E. “Veterans in the Fight for Equal Rights: From the Civil War to Today.” Trotter Review (2008/2009): 92-105.
  • Astor, Gerald. The Right to Fight: A History of African Americans in the Military. Novato, CA: Presidio, 1998.
  • Berg, Manfred. “American Wars and the Black Struggle for Freedom and Equality.” In The American Experience of War, ed. Georg Schild, 133-54. Paderborn, Germany: Schöningh, 2010.
  • Berryman, Sue E. Who Serves? : The Persistent Myth of the Underclass Army. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988.
  • Bolté, Charles G., and Louis Harris. “Our Negro Veterans.” Public Affairs Pamphlet No. 128. New York: Public Affairs Committee, 1947.
  • Buckley, Gail, Lumet. American Patriots: The Story of Blacks in the Military from the Revolution to Desert Storm. New York: Random House, 2001.
  • David, Jay, and Elaine Crane eds. The Black Soldier: From the American Revolution to Vietnam, New York, 1971.
  • Donaldson, Gary A. The History of Afro-Americans in the Military. Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing, 1991.
  • Dorn, Edwin, and Les Aspin. Who Defends America?: Race, Sex, and Class in the Armed Forces. Washington, DC: Joint Center for Political Studies Press, 1989.
  • Edgerton, Robert B. Hidden Heroism: Black Soldiers in America’s Wars. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2001.
  • Evans, Rhonda. A History of the Service of Ethnic Minorities in the U.S. Armed Forces. Santa Barbara, CA: The Center for the Study of Sexual Minorities in the Military, 2003.
  • Fernandez, Richard L. Social Representation in the U.S. Military. Washington, DC: Congress of the United States, Congressional Budget Office, 1989.
  • Fletcher, Marvin. The Black Soldier and Officer in the United States Army, 1891-1917. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1974.
  • Foner, Jack D. Blacks and the Military in American History. New York: Praeger, 1974.
  • Gatewood,Willard B., Jr., ed. Smoked Yankees and the Struggle for Empire: Letters from Negro Soldiers, 1898–1902. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1971.
  • Green, Robert E. Black Defenders of America 1775-1973. Chicago: Johnson Publishing Company, 1974.
  • Gropman, Alan L. “Blacks in the Military: the Equal Opportunity Imperative.” National Interest, Summer 1997.
  • Haynes, Robert V. A Night of Violence: The Houston Riot of 1917. Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 1976.
  • Hope, Richard O. Racial Strife in the U.S. Military: Toward the Elimination of Discrimination. New York: Praeger, 1979.
  • Horn, Gerald. Black and Brown: African Americans and the Mexican Revolution. New York: NYU Press, 2005.
  • Horne, Gerald. Black and Red: W. E. B. Du Bois and the Afro-American Response to the Cold War, 1944–1963. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986.
  • Johnson, Jesse J. Ebony Brass. [S.I.]: Carver, 1976.
  • Latty, Yvonne. We Were There: Voices of African American Veterans, from World War II to the War in Iraq. New York: Amistad, 2004.
  • Lee, Ulysses. The Employment of Negro Troops. The United States Army in World War II: Special Studies, vol. 8. Washington, DC: Center for Military History, 1966.
  • Longo, James. “Blacks Break Barriers to Grow in Rank.” Navy Times, July 25, 1988.
  • MacGregor, Morris, and Bernhard Nalty, eds. Blacks in the United States Armed Forces. Basic Documents, Vol. 12. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, 1977.
  • Moskos, Charles. The American Enlisted Man: The Rank and File in Today’s Military. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1970.
  • Mullen, Robert W. Blacks in America’s Wars: The Shift in Attitudes from the Revolutionary War to Vietnam. New York: Monad Press, 1973.
  • Nalty, Bernard C. Strength for the Fight: A History of Black Americans in the Military. New York: Free Press, 1986.
  • Nalty, Bernard C., and Morris J. MacGregor, eds. Blacks in the Military: Essential Documents. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, 1981.
  • Osur, Alan M. “Black White Relations in the U.S. Military 1940-1972.” Air University Review 33 (November/December 1981): 69-78.
  • Swenson, C. J. “Lt. David Robinson Speaks to Youngsters.” Henderson Hall News, September 1992.
  • Weaver, John D. The Brownsville Raid. New York: Norton & Co. 1970.
  • Wright, Kai. Soldiers of Freedom: An Illustrated History of African Americans in the Armed Forces. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, 2002.

Germany

  • Davis, David Brion. “The Americanized Mannheim of 1945-46.” In American Places: Encounters with History, ed. William Leuchtenberg, 79-92. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Höhn, Maria. “‘We Will Never Go Back to the Old Way Again’: Germany in the African American Debate on Civil Rights.” Central European History 41, no. 4 (December 2008): 605-37.
  • Höhn, Maria. “‘When Negro Soldiers Bring Home White Brides’: Deutsche und amerikanische Debatten über die ‘Mischehe’ (1945–1967).” In Amerikaner in Rheinland-Pfalz. Alltagskulturelle Begegnungen, ed. Werner Kremp and Martina Tumalis, 147–64. Trier: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, 2008.
  • Höhn, Maria. GIs and Fräulins: The German-American Encounter in 1950s West Germany. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
  • Little, Arthur W. From Harlem to the Rhine: The Story of New York’s Colored Volunteers. New York: Covici, Friede, 1936.
  • Little, Monroe H., Jr. “The Black Military Experience in Germany: From the First World War to the Present.” In Crosscurrents: African-Americans, Africa, and Germany in the Modern World, ed. David McBride, Leroy Hopkins, and Asisha Blackshire-Belay. Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1998.
  • NAACP. The Search for Military Justice: Report of an NAACP Inquiry Into the Problems of the Negro Servicemen in West Germany. New York: NAACP Special Contribution Fund, 1971.
  • Schroer, Timothy L. Recasting Race after World War II: Germans and African Americans in American-Occupied Germany. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2007.

Great Britain

  • Lilly, J. Robert, and J. Michael Thomson. “Executing U.S. Soldiers in England during WWII: The Power of Command Influence and Sexual Racism.” British Journal of Criminology 37, no. 2 (Spring 1997): 262–88.
  • Smith, Graham. When Jim Crow Met John Bull: Black American Soldiers in World War II in Britain. New York: Tauris, 1987.

Gulf War

  • “The Montel Williams Show.” Washington Afro-American, August 10, 1991.
  • Haywood, Richette L. “Should Moms Go to War?” Jet, March 4, 1991.
  • Randolph, Laura B. “The Untold Story of Black Women in the Gulf War.” Ebony, September 1991.

Integration

  • President’s Committee on Equal Opportunity in the Armed Forces. “Equality of Treatment and Opportunity for Negro Personnel Stationed within the United States.” Washington, DC, 1963.
  • President’s Committee on Equal Opportunity in the Armed Forces. “Final Report. Military Personnel Stationed Overseas.” Washington, DC, 1964.
  • United States Department of Defense. “Integration in the Armed Services. A Progress Report.” Washington, DC, 1955.
  • Bogart, Leo et al. Project Clear: Social Research and the Desegregation of the U.S. Army. Two Original 1951 Field Reports. International Research Associates, Johns Hopkins University. Operations Research Office. Chicago: Markham Pub. Co., 1969.
  • Dalfiume, Richard M. Desegregation of the U.S. Armed Forces: Fighting on Two Fronts, 1939–1953. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1975.
  • Gropman, Alan L. The Air Force Integrates 1945-1964. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, U.S. Air Force, 1985.
  • Historical Division, Headquarters United States Army Europe. Integration of Negro and White Troops in the U.S. Army, Europe, 1952–1954. Heidelberg, Germany, 1956.
  • MacGregor, Morris J., Jr., and Bernard C. Nalty. Blacks in the Military: Essential Documents. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1981.
  • MacGregor, Morris. Integration of the Armed Forces 1940–1965. Washington, DC: Center for Military History, 1981.
  • Mershon, Sherie, and Steven Schlossman. Foxholes and Color Lines: Desegregating the U.S. Armed Forces. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.
  • Moskos, Charles C. Racial Integration in the Armed Forces. A Warner Modular Publication; Reprint. Andover, MA: Warner Modular Publications, 1973.
  • Moskos, Charles, and John Sibley Butler. All That We Can Be: Black Leadership and Racial Integration, the Army Way. New York: Basic Books, 1997.
  • Nelson, Dennis D. The Integration of the Negro into the United States Navy, 1776-1947, with a Brief Historical Introduction. Washington, DC, 1948.
  • Schneller, Robert J., Jr. Blue & Gold and Black: Racial Integration of the U.S. Naval Academy. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2008.
  • Schneller, Robert J., Jr. Breaking the Color Barrier: The U.S. Naval Academy’s First Black Midshipmen and the Struggle for Racial Equality. New York: New York University Press, 2005.
  • Scott, Lawrence P., and William M.Womack. Double V: The Civil Rights Struggle of the Tuskegee Airmen. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1994.
  • Stillman, Richard Joseph. Integration of the Negro in the U.S. Armed Forces. New York: Praeger, 1968.

Iraq War

Korean War

  • Adelsberger, Bernard. “Men of the Old 24th Fight for Its Honor: Reject Army’s Assessment of Performance in Korea.” Army Times, August 7, 1995.
  • Bowers, William T. et al. Black Soldier, White Army: The 24th Infantry Regiment in Korea. Washington: Center of Military History, U. S. Army, 1996.
  • Bussey, Charles M. Firefight at Yechon: Courage and Racism in the Korean War. Washington: Brassey’s, 1991.
  • Hemingway, Al. “Airman Down in Korean Hills: Interview with Former Pilot Thomas Jerome Hudner, Jr.” Military History 12 (June 1995): 54-60.
  • Morrow, Curtis. What’s a Commie Ever Done to Black People?: A Korean War Memoir of Fighting in the U.S. Army’s Last All Negro Unit. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., Inc., 1997.
  • Rishell, Lyle. With a Black Platoon in Combat: A Year in Korea. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1993.
  • Taylor, Theodore. The Flight of Jesse Leroy Brown. New York: Avon Books, 1998.
  • Thompson, James. True Colors: 1004 Days as a Prisoner of War. Port Washington, NY: Ashley Books, 1989. Originally published as Camp 5. Laguna Beach, CA: Voyager Press, 1981.

Naval History

  • “Black American in the Navy.” All Hands, November 1969.
  • “How About Navy Pilots?” Crisis, October 1943.
  • “Jesse Brown Largest Ship Named for Black American.” Jet, February 1973.
  • “Navy Charter: On Race Relations and Equal Opportunity.” All Hands, April 1971.
  • “Navy’s ‘Gray Eagle’ Says Farewell to the Navy.” Sea Services Weekly, November 1996.
  • “Salute to Blacks in the Navy.” Baltimore Afro-American, March 6, 1982.
  • Allen, Robert L. Port Chicago Mutiny: The Story of the Largest Mass Mutiny in U.S. Naval History. New York: Warner Books, 1989.
  • Brown, Wesley A. “First Negro Graduate of Annapolis, Tells His Story.” Saturday Evening Post June 25, 1949.
  • Dunn, James A. On Board the USS Mason: The World War II Diary of James A. Dunn, ed. Mansel G. Blackford. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1996.
  • Farr, James Barker. Black Odyssey: The Seafaring Traditions of Afro-Americans. New York: P. Lang, 1989.
  • Field, R. L. “The Black Midshipman at the U. S. Naval Academy.” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 99 (April 1978): 28-36.
  • “Golden Thirteen.” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 113 (May 1987): 146-49. Excerpts from interviews with the Navy’s first black officers, commissioned in 1944.
  • Gravely, Samuel L., Jr. “A Few Beers Ain’t All Bad.” Naval History 7, no.1 (Spring 1993): 1213. [Memories of the V12 Program by Vice Admiral Gravely, who became the Navy’s first black admiral in 1971.]
  • Guttridge, Leonard F. Mutiny: A History of Naval Insurrection. Annapolis MD: Naval Institute Press, 1992.
  • Hailey, Leonard W. “The Role of Black Sailors in the Major Wars of America.” All Hands, August 1973.
  • Harris, Paul N. Base Company 16. New York: Vantage Press, 1963.
  • Harrod, Frederick S. “Integration of the Navy (1941-1978).” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 105 (October 1979): 40-47.
  • Harrod, Frederick S. “Jim Crow in the Navy (1798-1941).” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 105 (September 1979): 46-53.
  • Horn, Gerald. Red Seas: Ferdinand Smith and Radical Black Sailors in the United States and Jamaica. New York: NYU Press, 2009.
  • Katz-Stone, Adam. “(VADM) Card, (MC) Patton Named to Top Posts: Master Chief is the First African-American to Hold the Job.” Navy Times, March 23, 1998.
  • Kelly, Mary Pat. Proudly We Served: The Men of the USS Mason. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1995.
  • Meuller, William R. “The Negro in the Navy.” Social Forces, October 1945.
  • Langley, Harold D. “The Negro in the Navy and Merchant Service, 1789-1860.” Journal of Negro History 52 (October 1967): 273-86.
  • Massaquoi, Hans J. “J. Paul Reason: The Navy’s First Black Four-Star General.” Ebony, April 1998.
  • Miller, Richard E. The Messman Chronicles: African American in the U.S. Navy, 1932–1943. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2004.
  • Mrozek, Donald J. “The Croatan Incident: the U.S. Navy and the Problem of Racial Discrimination after World War II.” Military Affairs 44 (December 1980): 187-91.
  • Nalty, Bernard C. The Right to Fight: African-American Marines in World War II. Washington, DC, History and Museums Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps: Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., distributor, 1995.
  • Nelson, Dennis D. The Integration of the Negro into the Navy 1776-1947. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Young, 1951.
  • Oladeinde, Patricia. “African-Americans in the Navy.” All Hands, February 1996.
  • Price, Chris. “Black Achievers in Today’s Navy.” All Hands, February 1992.
  • Purdon, Eric. Black Company: The Story of Subchaser 1264. Washington: R. B. Luce, 1972.
  • Putney, Martha S. Black Sailors: Afro-American Merchant Seamen and Whalemen Prior to the Civil War. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.
  • Reddick, Lawrence D. “The Negro in the United States Navy During World War II.” Journal of Negro History 32 (April 1947): 201-19.
  • Rowan, Carl. “The Navy’s Search For Blacks.” Washington Star, October 1970.
  • Sherwood, John Darrell. Black Sailor, White Navy: Racial Unrest in the Fleet during the Vietnam War Era. New York: New York University Press, 2007.
  • Ryan, Paul B. “USS Constellation Flare-Up: Was it Mutiny?” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 102 (January 1976): 46-53.
  • Schneider, James G “Negros Will Be Tested: FDR.” Naval History 7, no.1 (Spring 1993): 1115. [Navy V12 training program].
  • Sharp, John G. ed. The Diary of Michael Shiner Relating to the History of the Washington Navy Yard 1813-1869. Washington, DC: Navy Department Library, 2007.
  • Shaw, Henry I., Jr., and Ralph W. Donnelly. Blacks in the Marine Corps. Washington, DC: U.S. Marine Corps, 1975.
  • Stillwell, Paul, ed. The Golden Thirteen: Recollections of the First Black Naval Officers. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1993.
  • U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Report by the Special Subcommittee on Disciplinary Problems in the U. S. Navy. 92d Congress, 2d sess., H.A.S.C. 92-81 OCLC 623058. [Includes descriptions of racial incidents on USS Kitty Hawk and USS Constellation in 1972.].
  • Vahsen, Penny. “Blacks in White Hats [at the U. S. Naval Academy].” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 113 (April 1987): 65-71.
  • Wadell, Bernard. I Am Somebody: The True Story of a Black U.S. Navy Frogman. Boston: Quinlan Press, 1986.
  • Weems, John E. “Black Wings of Gold.” United States Naval Institute Proceedings 109, no.7 (July 1983): 3539. [Ensign Jesse L. Brown, the Navy’s first black pilot, in squadron VF32 on board USS Leyte during Korean War].
  • Whetstone, Marc. “The Story of Four Ships and the Men They Honor.” All Hands, February 1973. [Jesses L. Brown, Dorie Miller, Leonard Roy Harmond and George Washington Carver].

Spanish American War

  • Cashin, Herschel et al. Under Fire with the Tenth U. S. Cavalry. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1993.
  • Duncan, Collum and Victor A. Berch, eds. African Americans in the Spanish Civil War: “This Ain’t Ethiopia, But It’ll Do.” New York: G. K. Hall, 1992.
  • Fletcher, Marvin. “The Black Volunteers in the Spanish-American War.” Military Affairs 38 (April 1974):48-53.
  • Logan, Rayford W. “The Negro in the Quasi War, 1798-1800.” Negro History Bulletin 14 (1951): 128-31.
  • Scott, Edward Van Zile. The Unwept: Black American Soldiers and the Spanish-American War. Montgomery, AL: Black Belt Press, 1996.
  • Wright, Reuben Leon. The Role of the Buffalo Soldiers during the Spanish-American War. Ft. Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, June 1992.

Vietnam War

  • “Profiles of the Fleet: Now He’s Exec of NROTC at Prairie View, All Hands Looks Back 10 Years.’” All Hands, June 1974.
  • “Samaritans On Wings: Black Nurse in Vietnam.” Ebony, May 25, 1970.
  • “U.S. Navy’s First Black Admiral.” Newsweek, May 10, 1971.
  • Acthison, Jerry, and Martin, Gary. “Captain Joan Bynum…A Matter of Setting Goals.” All Hands, February 1979.
  • Appy, Christian G. Working-Class War: American Combat Soldiers and Vietnam. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
  • Baskir, Lawrence M., and William A. Strauss. Chance and Circumstance: the Draft, the War, and the Vietnam Generation. New York: Knopf, 1978.
  • Coleman, Ronald O. “Personality: Captain Riley Pitts.” Vietnam, June 1998.
  • Foster, John W. Did Blacks Suffer More Deaths than Whites in Vietnam? Maxwell AFB, AL: Air Command and Staff College, 1987.
  • Friederich, Rudolf J. “Medal of Honor for 21 Black Vietnam Heroes.” Crisis, August-September 1974.
  • Gill, Gerald. “Black Soldiers Perspectives on the War.” In A Vietnam Reader, ed. Walter Capps. New York: Routledge, 1991.
  • Graham, Herman. The Brothers’ Vietnam War: Black Power, Manhood, and the Military Experience. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2003.
  • Gravely, Samuel L. “Shepard and a Negro Named Admirals.” New York Times, April 29, 1971.
  • Guttridge, Leonard F. Mutiny: A History of Naval Insurrection. Annapolis MD: Naval Institute Press, 1992.
  • Halloran, Richard. “Trail Blazer in Navy: Samuel Lee Gravely Jr.” New York Times, April 28, 1971.
  • Haynes, Karima A. “Sisters-In-Arms.” Ebony, March 1994.
  • Martin, Thad. “The Black Vietnam Vet: Still Looking for Respect.” Ebony, April 1986.
  • Obadele-Starks, Ernest M. B., and Amilcar Shabazz. “Blacks and the Vietnam War.” In The Vietnam War: A Handbook of the Literature and Research, ed. James S. Olson. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.
  • Parks, David. GI Diary. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.
  • Powers, William M. “Squadron Commander.” All Hands, June 1972.
  • Rowan, Carl. “The Navy’s Search For Blacks.” Washington Star, October 16, 1970.
  • Sherwood, John Darrell. Black Sailor, White Navy: Racial Unrest in the Fleet during the Vietnam War Era. New York: New York University Press, 2007.
  • Stanley,Goff and Robert Sanders. Brothers, Black Soldiers in the Nam. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1982.
  • Terry, Wallace. Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War by Black Veterans. New York: Random House, 1984.
  • Vance, Samuel. The Courageous and the Proud. New York: W.W. Norton, 1970.
  • Wasted Men: The Reality of the Vietnam Veteran. Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University Foundation, 1972.
  • Westheider, James E. Fighting on Two Fronts: African Americans and the Vietnam War. New York, New York University Press, 1997.
  • Zumwalt, Elmo R. On Watch: A Memoir. New York: Quadrangle, 1976.

The War of 1812

  • Altoff, Gerard T. Amongst My Best Men: African-Americans and the War of 1812. Put in Bay, OH: Perry Group, 1996.
  • Green, Lorenzo J. “The Negro in the War of 1812 and the Civil War.” Negro History Bulletin 14 (March 1951): 131-38.
  • Langley, Harold D. “The Negro in the Navy and Merchant Service 1789-1860.” Journal of Negro History 52 (October 1967): 273-86.

Women

  • “First Black Female Air Force General (Marcelite J. Harris).” Air Force Times, January 22, 1990.
  • “First WAVES Win Praise.” Headlines, February 1945.
  • “Navy Gets Its First Black Women in Medical Corps.” Jet, May 29, 1975.
  • “Salute to Blacks in the Navy.” Baltimore Afro-American, March 6, 1982.
  • “Segregation for WAVES, Even in New York City.” Afro-American, November 4, 1944.
  • “Ship Shape: Josephine Delores Rosa Is the First Negro WAVE to Get Sea-Going Duty.” Our World, February 1954.
  • “The Untold Story Of Black Women in the Gulf War. African-Americans Helped Redefine the Role of Females in the Military.” Ebony, September 1991.
  • Adams-Ender, Clara L. My Rise to the Stars: How a Sharecropper’s Daughter Became an Army General. Lake Ridge, VA: CAPE Associates, 2001.
  • Akers, Regina Theresa. “Female Naval Reservists During World War II: An Historiographical Essay.” Minerva 8, no. 2 (Summer 1990): 55-61.
  • Akers, Regina Theresa. “Doing Their Part: The WAVES in World War II.” Diss., Howard University, 2000.
  • Bird, Julie. “Making History: Brigadier General Selectee Harris and Her Climb to the Top.” Air Force Times, July 16, 1990.
  • Blood, Katherine. Negro Women War Workers. Washington, DC: Women’s Bureau, United States Dept. of Labor, 1945.
  • Bolden, James, “Black Women in Uniform,” Los Angeles Sentinal, May 26, 1994.
  • Bragg, Janet Harmon. Soaring Above Setbacks: The Autobiography of Janet Harmon Bragg, African American Aviator. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996.
  • Campbell, D’Ann. “Bibliographic Essay: Women in the Military.” Choice 31, no.1 (Sep. 1993): 63-70.
  • Campbell, D’Ann. Women at War with America: Private Lives in a Patriotic Era. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984.
  • Carnegie, M. Elizabeth. “Nurses and War: Black Nurses at the Front.” American Journal of Nursing 84 (October 1984): 1250-52.
  • Claiborn, T. “Air Force Graduates First Black Women Pilot.” Ebony, January 1983.
  • Daniels, K. B. “Social Construction of Race and Gender: Black Women Officers in the U.S. Navy.” Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, 1994.
  • Drew, Robin. “Army’s 2d Lt. Marcella A. Hayes, 1st Black Woman Aviator in U. S. Forces.” United States Army Aviation Digest 26 (January 1980): inside back cover.
  • Earley, Charity Adams. “Education of Margaret Jackson: Member of the Women’s Army Corps, September 1943-March 1946.” Minerva: Quarterly Report on Women and the Military 9 (Winter 1991): 56-77.
  • Earley, Charity Adams. One Woman’s Army: A Black Officer Remembers the WAC. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1996.
  • Freydberg, Elizabeth H. Bessie Coleman, The Brownskin Lady Bird. New York, Garland Pub., 1994.
  • Gomez, Rita V. “Black WACs and Bad Times in the Good War.” Current News Special Edition: Equal Opportunity No. 1911 (June 1992): 21-22.
  • Haynes, Karima A. “Sisters-In-Arms.” Ebony, March 1994.
  • Hine, Darlene Clark, ed. Black Women in America, 3 vols., 2nd ed. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • Hine, Darlene Clark, ed. Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia, 2 vols. Brooklyn, NY: Carlson Publishers, 1992.
  • Hine, Darlene Clark. Black Women in White, Racial Conflict and Cooperation in the Nursing Profession, 1890-1950. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.
  • Honey, Maureen, ed. Bitter Fruit: African American Women in World War I. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1999.
  • Howard, Grendel. “Carrying Forth a Tradition” [Black Women in the Army]. Soldiers, February 1985.
  • Johnson, Jesse L., ed. Black Women in the Armed Forces, 1942-1974: A Pictorial History. Hampton, VA: Johnson, 1974.
  • Keys, Carol. “And the Army Keeps Rolling Along”: A Study of the Effects of Gender and Race on Women Officers’ Careers and the Strategies They Use to Survive and Succeed. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI, 1997.
  • King, Lisa Y. “In Search of Women of African Descent Who Served in the Civil War Union Navy.” The Journal of Negro History 83 (Autumn 1998): 302-9.
  • Latty, Yvonne, compiler. We Were There: Voices of African American Veterans from World War II to the War in Iraq. New York: Amistad, 2004.
  • Litoff, Judy Barrett, and David C. Smith. We’re in This War, Too. World War II Letters From American Women in Uniform. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
  • McKenna, Pat. “Nursing Old Wounds: Retired Major Recalls Struggles as First Black in Regular Army Nurse Corps.” Airman 42 (April 1998): 38-41.
  • Miller, Richard E. “The Golden Fourteen, Plus: Black Navy Women in World War One.” Minerva: Quarterly Report on Women and the Military 13 (Fall-Winter 1995): 7-13.
  • Moore, Brenda L. “African-American Women in the U.S. Military.” Armed Forces & Society 17 (Spring 1991): 363-84.
  • Moore, Brenda L. “Serving with Dual Mission: African-American Women in World War II.” National Journal of Sociology 7 (Summer 1993): 1-42.
  • Moore, Brenda L. To Serve My Country, To Serve My Race: The Story of the Only African American WACS Stationed Overseas during World War II. New York: New York University Press, 1996.
  • Muradian, Vago. “Guard Has First Black Female General.” Army Times, December 6, 1993.
  • Putney, Martha S. When the Nation Was in Need: Blacks in the Women’s Army Corps During World War II. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1992.
  • Randolph, Laura B. “The Untold Story of Black Women in the Gulf War: African-Americans Helped Redefine the Role of Females in the Military.” Ebony, September 1991.
  • Rich, Doris. Queen Bess: Daredevil Aviator. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993.
  • Salter, Krewasky A. I., “Sable officers”: African-American Military Officers, 1861-1948. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI, 1996.
  • Seeley, Charlotte Palmer, Virginia Purdy, and Robert Gruber. American Women and the U.S. Armed Forces: A Guide to the Records of Military Agencies In the National Archives Relating to American Women, rev. ed. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1992.
  • Sims-Wood, Janet. “We served America too!” Personal Recollections of African American Women in the Women’s Army Corps during World War II. Ann Arbor, MI, UMI, 1994.
  • Stiehm, Judith Hicks, ed. It’s Our Military, Too!: Women and the U.S. Military. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996.
  • Swann, Leslie M. African American Women in the World War II Defense Industry. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI, 2004.
  • Taylor, Susie King. A Black Woman’s Civil War Memoirs: Reminiscences of My Life in Camp with the 33rd U.S. Colored Troops, Late 1st South Carolina Volunteers, ed. Patricia W. Romero. New York, M. Wiener Pub., Distributed by the Talman Co., 1988.
  • Tucker, Phillip Thomas. Cathy Williams: From Slave to Female Buffalo Soldier. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2002.
  • Turner, Robbie G. Minority Women Officers in the Navy: Past, Present and Future Prospects. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School. Mar 1991.
  • Walker, Nicole. “Vernice Armour, 1st Black Female Combat Pilot, Serves in Persian Gulf as Family Copes.” Jet, April 14, 2003.

World War I

  • Barbeau, Arthur E. and Florette Henri. The Unknown Soldiers–Black American Troops in World War I. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1974.
  • Harris, Bill. The Hellfighters of Harlem: African-American Soldiers Who Fought for the Right to Fight for Their Country. New York: Carroll & Graff Publishers, 2002.
  • Harris, Stephen. Harlem’s Hell Fighters–The African American 369th Infantry in World War I. Dulles: Potomac Books, 2002.
  • Henri, Florette, and Richard Joseph Stillman. Bitter Victory: A History of Black Soldiers in World War I. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1970.
  • Honey, Maureen, ed. Bitter Fruit: African American Women in World War I. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1999.
  • Lentz-Smith, Adriane. Freedom Struggles: African Americans and World War I. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.
  • Miller, Richard. “The Golden Fourteen, Plus: Black Navy Women in World War One.” Minerva 13 (Fall/Winter 1995): 713.
  • Scott, Emmett. “A Yachtsman’s Tale.” All Hands, February 1988.
  • Scott, Emmett. Scott’s Official History of the American Negro in World War. Chicago: Homewood Press, 1919.
  • Sheldon, Avery. Up from Washington: William Pickens and the Negro Struggle for Equality. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1980.
  • Steele, Dennis. “Hellfighters from Harlem.” Soldiers, February 1988.
  • Sweeney, W. Allison. History of the American Negro in the Great World War: His Splendid Record in the Battle Zones of Europe, Including a Resume of His Past Services to His Country in the Wars of the Revolution, Of 1812, the War of the Rebellion, the Indian Wars on the Frontier, the Spanish American War, and the Late Imbroglio with Mexico. Chicago: Cuneo Henneberry Co., 1919.
  • White, William B. The American Military and the Melting Pot in World War I, ed. Peter Karsten. New York: Free Press, 1986.
  • Williams, Charles Halston. Negro Soldiers in World War I: the Human Side. New York: AMS Press, 1970.

World War II

  • “Heroes—World War II Vet J. C. Wade Leads the Charge for Recognition of the Combat Service of Black Volunteers and Gets an Overdue Bronze Star.” People Weekly, August 17, 1998.
  • “Report on the Negro Soldier.” Infantry Journal, December 1946.
  • “The Politics of Race and War: Black American Soldiers in the Caribbean Theater during the Second World War.” Military Affairs, April 1983.
  • Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem. Brothers in Arms: The Epic Story of the 761st Tank Battalion, WWII’s Forgotten Heroes. New York: Broadway Books, 2004.
  • African Americans and WWII. Washington, DC: Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History, 1994.
  • Akers, Regina T. “A Very Special Tribute.” Pull Together 33 (Fall/Winter, 1994): 9.
  • Allen, Robert L. The Port Chicago Mutiny. New York: Warner Books, 1989.
  • Baker, Vernon J., with Olsen, Ken. Lasting Valor: The Story of the Only Living Black WWII Veteran to Earn America’s Highest Distinction for Valor, the Medal of Honor. New York: Bantam, 1999.
  • Bass, Leon, and Pam Sporn. “‘I Saw The Walking Dead’: A Black Sergeant Remembers Buchenwald.” Interview segment of the documentary “Blacks and Jews: Are They Really Sworn Enemies?” Educational Video Center. http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/142, undated.
  • Betts, M. W. “The Tuskegee Airmen.” Dispatch, February 7, 1985.
  • Biggs, Bradley. The Triple Nickels: America’s First All-Black Paratroop Unit. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1986.
  • Brandt, Nat. Harlem at War: the Black Experience in WWII. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1996.
  • Buchanan, A. Russell. Black Americans in World War II. Santa Barbara, CA: Clio Books, 1977.
  • Cocklin,  Robert F. “Report on the Negro Soldier.” Infantry Journal. Army, Record Group 200, 1946.
  • Colley, David P. The Road to Victory: The Untold Story of Race and World War II’s Red Ball Express. Washington, DC: Brassey’s, 2000.
  • Command of Negro Troops: War Department, 29 February 1944, Pamphlet No. 20–26. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1944.
  • Davis, John W. “The Negro in the United States Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard.” Journal of Negro Education 12 (July 1943): 345-49.
  • Dunn, James A. On Board the USS Mason: The World War II Diary of James A. Dunn, ed. Mansel G. Blackford. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1996.
  • Enda, Jodi. “Open Sky: Black WWII Pilots Receive Salute for Breaking the Color Barrier.” Current News Special Edition: Equal Opportunity No. 1911:23 June 1992.
  • Erstein, Hap. “The Eagles Who Touched the Sky.”  Insight, March 4, 1991.
  • Ferguson, William C. Black Flyers in World War II. Cleveland, OH: W. C. Ferguson, 1987.
  • Flynn, George Q. “Selective Service and American Blacks during World War II.” Journal of Negro History 69 (Winter 1984): 14-25.
  • Fogleman, Ronald R. “Tuskegee Airmen’s Legacy of Service for Youth Today.” Defense Issues 10, no. 93 (1995): 1-4.
  • Francis, Charles E. The Tuskegee Airmen: The Men Who Changed a Nation, 3rd, rev. and enlarged. Boston: Branden Pub. Co., 1993.
  • Galloway, Joseph L. “Debt of Honor” [seven black heroes nominated for the Medal of Honor for their service in World War II: Vernon Baker, Edward A. Carter, Jr., John R. Fox, Willy James, Ruben Rivers, Charles L. Thomas, and George Watson.]. U. S. News & World Report, May 6, 1996.
  • Gillead, Le Roy F. The Tuskegee Experiment and Tuskegee Airmen 1939-1949. San Francisco, [n.p.], 1994
  • Harper, Gene. “Tuskegee: Runway to Victory.” Soldiers, February 1984.
  • Harris, Frank III. “A Black Man’s Act of Heroism at Pearl Harbor.” Current News Special Edition: Equal Opportunity No. 1911:28 June 1992.
  • Harris, Lorenzo D. “All Guts, Little Glory (332nd Fighter Group in WWII).” Airman, February 1985.
  • Harris, Paul N. Base Company 16. New York: Vantage Press, 1963.
  • James, C. L. R. Fighting Racism in World War II. New York: Monad Press, 1980.
  • Johnson, Gerald K. “The Black Soldier in the Ardennes.” Soldiers, February 1981.
  • Kesting, Robert W. “Conspiracy to Discredit the Black Buffaloes: The 92nd Infantry in World War II.” Journal of Negro History 72 (Winter-Spring 1987): 1-19.
  • Killingray, David. “Africans and African Americans in Enemy Hands.” In Prisoners of War and Their Captors in World War II, ed. Bob Moore and Kent Fedorowich, 181-204. Oxford: Berg, 1996.
  • Kryder, Daniel. Divided Arsenal: Race and the American State During World War II. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
  • Latimer, Philip W. “When the Black Panthers Prowled.” Army, January 1992.
  • Lewis, Claude. “Pearl Harbor’s Black Heroes Didn’t Get Recognition Then or Now.” Current News Special Edition: Equal Opportunity No. 1911:32 June 1992.
  • Litoff, Judy Barrett, and David C. Smith. We’re in This War, Too: World War II Letters from African American Women in Uniform. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
  • Lusane, Clarence. Hitler’s Black Victims: The Historical Experiences of Afro-Germans, European Blacks, Africans, and African Americans in the Nazi Era. New York: Routledge, 2003.
  • Luszki, Walter A. A Rape of Justice: MacArthur and the New Guinea Hangings. Lanham, MD: Madison Books, 1991.
  • Macdonald, Dwight, and Nancy Macdonald. The War’s Greatest Scandal! The Story of Jim Crow in Uniform. [New York]: March on Washington Movement [1943].
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